Screened-Out Meta-Analyses for Practices

We have identified thousands of programs and practices in our literature reviews, but not every intervention makes it onto CrimeSolutions with a rating.

We use rigorous research to inform you about what works in criminal justice, juvenile justice and crime victim services. We set a high bar for the scientific quality of the evidence used to assign ratings. Much of the evidence that we identify is screened out before going to review. See Why Meta-analyses Are Screened Out.

Following is a list of meta-analyses that were screened out during the initial review. 

Screened-Out Meta Analyses
Reference Primary Topic Practice Topic
Euser, Saskia, Lenneke R.A. Alink, Marije Stoltenborgh, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, and Marinus H. van IJzendoorn. 2015. "A Gloomy Picture: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Reveals Disappointing Effectiveness of Programs Aiming at Preventing Child Maltreatment." BMC Public Health 15:1068. Victims & Victimization Preventive Child Maltreatment Programs
Bowen, Daniel J., and James T. Neill. 2013. "A Meta-Analysis of Adventure Therapy Outcomes and Moderators." Open Psychology Journal 6:28-53. Juvenile Justice Adventure Therapy
Nievar, M. Angela, Laurie A. Van Egeren, and Sara Pollard. 2010. "A Meta-Analysis of Home Visiting Programs: Moderators of Improvements in Maternal Behavior." Infant Mental Health Journal 31(5):499-520. Juvenile Justice Home Visiting Programs
Ferguson, L. Myles, and J. Stephen Wormith. 2013. "A Meta-Analysis of Moral Reconation Therapy." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 57:1076-1106. Corrections Moral Reconation Therapy
Cason, Dana, and H.L. "Lee" Gillis. 1994. "A Meta-Analysis of Outdoor Adventure Programming With Adolescents." Journal of Experiential Education 17(1):40-47. Juvenile Justice Adventure Programming With Adolescents
Laidlaw, J. Scott. 2000. "A Meta-Analysis of Outdoor Education Programs." Dissertation. Greeley, Colo.: University of Northern Colorado. Juvenile Justice Outdoor Education Programs
Seo, Chunghyeon, Bitna Kim, and Nathan E. Kruis. 2020. "A Meta-Analysis of Police Response Models for Handling People With Mental Illnesses: Cross-Country Evidence on the Effectiveness." International Criminal Justice Review, published online first. Law Enforcement Police Response Models for Handling People With Mental Illnesses
Hans, Tracy A. 2000. "A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Adventure Programming on Locus of Control." Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 30(1):33-60. Juvenile Justice Adventure Programming With Adolescents
Bettmann, Joanna E., H.L. Gillis, Elizabeth A. Speelman, Kimber J. Parry, and Jonathan M. Case. 2016. "A Meta-Analysis of Wilderness Therapy Outcomes for Private Pay Clients." Journal of Child and Family Studies 25:2659-73. Juvenile Justice Wilderness Therapy for Private Pay Clients
Grove, Allen B., Steven W. Evans, Dena A. Pastor, and Samantha D. Mack. 2008. "A Meta-Analytic Examination of Follow-Up Studies of Programs Designed to Prevent the Primary Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders." Aggression and Violent Behavior 13:169-84. Juvenile Justice Programs to Prevent the Primary Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorders

Feder, Lynette, and David B. Wilson. 2005. "A Meta-Analytic Review of Court-Mandated Batterer Intervention Programs: Can Courts Affect Abusers' Behavior?" Journal of Experimental Criminology 1:239-62.

Feder, Lynette, David B. Wilson, and Sabrina Austin. 2008. "Court-Mandated Interventions for Individuals Convicted of Domestic Violence." Campbell Systematic Reviews 12.

Courts Court-Mandated Batterer Intervention Programs
Porath-Waller, Amy J., Erin Beasley, Douglas J. Beirness. 2010. "A Meta-Analytic Review of School-Based Prevention for Cannabis Use." Health Education & Behavior 37(5):709-23. Drug & Substance Abuse School-Based Prevention Programs for Cannabis Use
Trood, Michael D., Benjamin L. Spivak, and James R.P. Ogloff. 2021. "A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Judicial Supervision on Recidivism and Well-Being Factors of Criminal Offenders." Journal of Criminal Justice 74:101796. Courts Judicial Supervision Impacts on Recidivism and Well-Being of Criminal Offenders
Hattie, John, H. W. Marsh, James T. Neill and Garry E. Richards. 1997. "Adventure Education and Outward Bound: Out-of-Class Experiences That Make a Lasting Difference." Review of Educational Research 67(1):43-87. Juvenile Justice Adventure Education and Outward Bound Programs for Adolescents
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A.J., Kelly S. Demartini, Kate B. Carey, and Michael P. Carey. 2009. "Alcohol Interventions for College Students Improves Antecedents of Behavioral Change: Results From a Meta-Analysis of 34 Randomized Controlled Trials." Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 28(7):799-823. Drug & Substance Abuse Alcohol Interventions for College Students
Carey, Kate B., Lori A.J. Scott-Sheldon, Lorra Garey, Jennifer C. Elliott, and Michael P. Carey. 2016. "Alcohol Interventions for Mandated College Students: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 84(7):619-32. Drug & Substance Abuse Alcohol Interventions for College Students
Fox, Bryanna, Lauren N. Miley, Kelly E. Kortright, Rachelle J. Wetsman. 2021. "Assessing the Effect of Mental Health Courts on Adult and Juvenile Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis." American Journal of Criminal Justice, published online first. Courts Adult and Juvenile Mental Health Courts
Aos, Steve, Roxanne Lieb, Jim Mayfield, Marna Miller, and Annie Pennucci. 2004. Benefits and Costs of Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth. Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Juvenile Justice Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth
Lindstrøm, Maia, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, Krystyna Kowalski, Trine Filges, and Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen. 2013. "Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) for Young People in Treatment for Nonopioid Drug Use." Campbell Systematic Reviews 9. Juvenile Justice Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) Program
Zedler, Barbara K., Ashley L. Mann, Mimi M. Kim, Halle R. Amick, Andrew R. Joyce, E. Lenn Murrelle, and Hendrée E. Jones. 2016. "Buprenorphine Compared With Methadone to Treat Pregnant Women With Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Safety in the Mother, Fetus, and Child." Addiction 111:2115-28. Drug & Substance Abuse Buprenorphine Compared With Methadone to Treat Pregnant Women With Opioid Use Disorder
Hahna, Hilary, Karen Putnam, Carrie Epstein, Steven Marans, and Frank Putnam. 2019. "Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI) Reduces Parental Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms: A Multisite Meta-Analysis (MSMA)." Child Abuse & Neglect 92:106-15. Juvenile Justice Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI) Program
Theule, Jennifer, Kristene Cheung, and Kelsey Aberdeen. 2018. "Children's ADHD Interventions and Parenting Stress: A Meta-Analysis." Journal of Child and Family Studies 27:2744-56. Juvenile Justice Interventions for Children's Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Parental Stress
Harada, Takayuki, Hiroshi Tsutomi, Rintaro Mori, and David B Wilson. 2019. "Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS)-Use Disorders." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2919, 15e:1026. Drug & Substance Abuse Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment for Amphetamine-Type Stimulants (ATS)-Use Disorders
Cheng, Shih-Ying, Maxine Davis, Melissa Jonson-Reid, and Lauren Yaeger. 2019. "Compared to What? A Meta-Analysis of Batterer Intervention Studies Using Nontreated Controls or Comparisons." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, published online first. (possible rereview) Courts Batterer Interventions
Filene, Jill H., Jennifer W. Kaminski, Linda Anne Valle, and Patrice Cachat. 2013. "Components Associated With Home Visiting Program Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis." Pediatrics, accepted for publication Aug 26, 2013. Victims & Victimization Home Visiting Programs
McCart, Michasel R., Paul E. Priester, W. Hobart Davies, and Razia Azen. 2006. "Differential Effectiveness of Behavioral Parent-Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Antisocial Youth: A Meta-Analysis." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 34(4):527-43. Juvenile Justice Behavioral Parent-Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Antisocial Youth
Telep, Cody W., David Weisburd, Charlotte E. Gill, Zoe Vitter, and Doron Teichman. 2014. "Displacement of Crime and Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits in Large-Scale Geographic Areas: A Systematic Review." Journal of Experimental Criminology 10:515-48. Law Enforcement Displacement of Crime and Diffusion of Crime Control Benefits in Large-Scale Geographic Areas
Kendrick, Denise, Ruth Elkan, Michael Hewitt, Michael Dewey, Mitch Blair, Jane Robinson, Debbie Williams, and Kathy Brummell. 2000. "Does Home Visiting Improve Parenting and the Quality of the Home Environment? A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis." Archives of Disease in Childhood 82:443-51. Juvenile Justice Home Visiting Programs

Joy Tong, L.S., and P. Farrington. 2008. "Effectiveness of 'Reasoning and Rehabilitation' in Reducing Reoffending." Psicothema 20:20-28.

Joy Tong, L. S., and David P. Farrington. 2006. "How Effective Is the 'Reasoning and Rehabilitation' Programme in Reducing Reoffending? A Meta-Analysis of Evaluations in Four Countries." Psychology, Crime, & Law 12:3-24.

Corrections Reasoning and Rehabilitation Programs
Chen, Mengton, and Ko Ling Chan. 2020. "Effectiveness of Digital Health Interventions on Unintentional Injury, Violence, and Suicide: Meta-Analysis." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, published online first. Victims & Victimization Digital Health Interventions
Carney, Tara, and Bronwyn Myers. 2012. "Effectiveness of Early Interventions for Substance Using Adolescents: Findings From a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 7:25-40. Juvenile Justice Early Interventions for Substance Using Adolescents
Moore, Kelly E., Walter Roberts, Holly H. Reid, Kathryn M.Z. Smith, Lindsay M.S. Oberleitner, and Sherry A. McKee. 2019. "Effectiveness of Medication Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use in Prison and Jail Settings: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 99:32-43. Drug & Substance Abuse Medication Assisted Treatment for Opioid Use in Prison and Jail Settings
Li, Lili, Shimin Zhu, Nick Tse, Samson Tse, and Paul Wong. 2015. "Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing to Reduce Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Addiction 111:795-805. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing to Reduce Illicit Drug Use in Adolescents
Mihelic, Mandy Alina Morawska, and Ania Filus. 2017. "Effects of Early Parenting Interventions on Parents and Infants: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Child and Family Studies 26:1507-26. Juvenile Justice Early Parenting Interventions
Dekovic, Maja, Meike I. Slagt, Jessica J. Asscher, Leonieke Boendermaker, Veroni I. Eichelsheim, and Peter Prinzie. 2011. "Effects of Early Prevention Programs on Adult Criminal Offending: A Meta-Analysis." Clinical Psychology Review 31:532-44. Juvenile Justice Early Prevention Programs
Chen, Mengtong, and Ko Ling Chan. 2016. "Effects of Parenting Programs on Child Maltreatment Prevention: A Meta-Analysis." Trauma, Violence, and Abuse 17(1):88-104. Victims & Victimization Parenting Programs
Weisz, John R., Bahr Weiss, Susan S. Han, Douglas A. Granger, and Todd Morton. 1995. "Effects of Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Outcome Studies." Psychological Bulletin 117:450-68. Juvenile Justice Psychotherapy With Children and Adolescents
Maynard, Brandy R., Anne Farina, Nathaniel A. Dell, and Michael S. Kelly. 2019. "Effects of Trauma-Informed Approaches in Schools: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Reviews 15:e1018. Juvenile Justice Trauma-Informed Approaches in Schools
White, L.D., A. Hodge, R. Vlok, G. Hurtado, K. Eastern, and T. M. Melhuish. 2018. "Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Buprenorphine in Acute Pain Management: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials." British Journal of Anaesthesia 120(4):668-78. Drug & Substance Abuse Buprenorphine Inacute Pain Management
Fachini, Alexandre, Poliana P. Aliane, Edson Z. Martinez, and Erikson F. Furtado. 2012. "Efficacy of Brief Alcohol Screening Intervention for College Students (BASICS): A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy 7:40-50. Drug & Substance Abuse Brief Alcohol Screening Intervention for College Students (BASICS) Program
Bennett, David S., and Theresa A. Gibbons. 2000. "Efficacy of Child Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Antisocial Behavior: A Meta-Analysis." Child & Family Behavior Therapy 22(1):1-15. Juvenile Justice Child Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions for Antisocial Behavior
Johansson Bjorn Axel, Mats Berglund, and Anna Lindgren. 2007."Efficacy of Maintenance Treatment With Methadone for Opioid Dependence: A Meta-Analytical Study." Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 61:288-95. Oslo, Norway. Drug & Substance Abuse Methadone Maintenance
Waldron, Holly Barrett, and Charles W. Turner. 2008. "Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Adolescent Substance Abuse." Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 37:238-61. Drug & Substance Abuse Psychosocial Treatments for Adolescent Substance Abuse
Dopp, Alex R., Charles M. Borduin, and Cynthia E. Brown. 2015. "Evidence-Based Treatments for Juvenile Sexual Offenders: Review and Recommendations." Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research 7(4):223-36. Juvenile Justice Treatments for Juvenile Sexual Offenders
Lindstrøm, Maia, Madina Saidj, Krystyna Kowalski, Trine Filges, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, and Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen. 2015. "Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) for Young People in Treatment for Nonopioid Drug Use: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Reviews 11. Juvenile Justice Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) Program
McGinn, Tony, Paul Best, Jason Wilson, Admire Chereni, Mphatso Kamndaya, Aron Shlonsky. 2020. "Family Group Decisionmaking for Children at Risk of Abuse or Neglect: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Review 16(3). Victims & Victimization Family Group Decisionmaking for Children at Risk of Abuse or Neglect
Filges, Trine, Ditte Andersen, and Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen. 2015. "Functional Family Therapy (FFT) for Young People in Treatment for Nonopioid Drug Use: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2015:14. Juvenile Justice Functional Family Therapy (FFT) Program
Morgan, Robert D., and David B. Flora. 2002. "Group Psychotherapy With Incarcerated Offenders: A Research Synthesis." Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice 6(3):203-18. Corrections Group Psychotherapy With Incarcerated Offenders
Blodgett, Janet C. Natalya C. Maisel, Ingrid L. Fuh, Paula L. Wilbourne, and John W. Finney. 2014. "How Effective Is Continuing Care for Substance Use Disorders? A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 46:87-97. Drug & Substance Abuse Continuing Care for Substance Use Disorders

Wilson, David B., Ajima Olaghere, and Catherine S. Kimbrell. 2019. "Implementing Juvenile Drug Treatment Courts: A Meta-Aggregation of Process Evaluations." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 56(4):605-45.

Wilson, David, Ajima Olaghere, and Catherine S. Kimbrell. 2019. Developing Juvenile Drug Court Practices on Process Standards: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Juvenile Justice Juvenile Drug Courts
Barlow, Jane, Isabelle Johnston, Denise Kendrick, Leon Polnay, and Sarah Stewart-Brown. 2006. "Individual and Group-Based Parenting Programmes for the Treatment of Physical Child Abuse and Neglect (Review)." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3. Victims & Victimization Individual and Group-Based Parenting Programs
McPhail, Ian V., and Mark E. Olver. 2020. "Interventions for Pedohebephilic Arousal in Men Convicted for Sexual Offenses Against Children: A Meta-Analytic Review." Criminal Justice and Behavior 47(10):1319-39. Corrections Interventions for Pedohebephilic Arousal in Men Convicted for Sexual Offenses Against Children
Sweet, Monica A., and Mark I. Appelbaum. 2004. "Is Home Visiting an Effective Strategy? A Meta-Analytic Review of Home Visiting Programs for Families With Young Children." Child Development 75(5):1435-56. Juvenile Justice Home Visiting Programs
Brigitta Goense, Pauline, Mark Assink, Geert-Jan Stams, Leonieke Boendermaker, and Machteld Hoeve. 2016. "Making 'What Works' Work: A Meta-Analytic Study of the Effect of Treatment Integrity on Outcomes of Evidence-Based Interventions for Juveniles With Antisocial Behavior." Aggression and Violent Behavior 31:106-15. Juvenile Justice Interventions for Juveniles With Antisocial Behavior
Ehring, Thomas, Renate Welboren, Nexhmedin Morina, Jelte M. Wicherts, Janina Freitag, and Paul M.G. Emmelkamp. 2014. "Meta-Analysis of Psychological Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse." Clinical Psychology Review 34:645-57. Victims & Victimization Psychological Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse
Romano, Elisa, Kelly Weegar, Elena Gallitto, Sarah Zak, and Michael Saini. 2019. "Meta-Analysis on Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence." Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, available online first. Victims & Victimization Interventions for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
Mingebach, Tanja, Inge Kamp-Becker, Hanna Christiansen, and Linda Weber. 2018. "Meta-Meta-Analysis on the Effectiveness of Parent-Based Interventions for the Treatment of Child Externalizing Behavior Problems." PLoS ONE 13(9):e0202855. Juvenile Justice Parent-Based Interventions for the Treatment of Child Externalizing Behavior Problems
Faggiano, Fabrizio, Federica Vigna-Taglianti, Elisabetta Versino, and Patrizia Lemma. 2003. "Methadone Maintenance at Different Dosages for Opioid Dependence." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 3:CD002208. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002208 Drug & Substance Abuse Methadone Maintenance

Apsche, Jack A., Christopher K. Bass, and Lucia DiMeo. 2010. "Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) Comprehensive Meta-Analysis." JOBA-OVTP 2(3):171-82.

Swart, Joan, and Jack Apsche. 2014. "Mode Deactivation Therapy Meta-Analysis: Reanalysis and Interpretation." International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy 9(2):16-21.

Juvenile Justice Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT)
Foxcroft D.R., L. Coombes, S. Wood, D. Allen, N.M.L. Almeida Santimano, and M.T. Moreira. 2016. "Motivational Interviewing for the Prevention of Alcohol Misuse in Young Adults." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 7:CD007025. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing for the Prevention of Alcohol Misuse in Young Adults
Filges, Trine, Pernille Skovbo Rasmussen, Ditte Andersen, and Anne-Marie Klint Jørgensen. 2015. "Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for Young People in Treatment for Nonopioid Drug Abuse: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Reviews 8. Juvenile Justice Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) Program
Littell, Julia H., Melanie Popa, and Burnee Forsythe. 2005. "Multisystemic Therapy for Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems in Youth Aged 10-17." Cochrane Systematic Reviews 1. Juvenile Justice Multisystemic Therapy (MST) Program
Fisher, Herrick, Paul Montgomery, and Frances Gardner. 2008. "Opportunities Provision for Preventing Youth Gang Involvement for Children and Young People (7-16)." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2008:8. Juvenile Justice Programs for Preventing Youth Gang Involvement for Children and Young People (7-16)
Barlow, Jane, Cathy Bennett, Nick Midgley, Soili K. Larkin, and Yinghui Wei. 2015. "Parent-Infant Psychotherapy for Improving Parental and Infant Mental Health: A Systematic Review." Cochrane Systematic Reviews 6. Juvenile Justice Parent-Infant Psychotherapy Program
Armstrong, Eleanor, Elizabeth Eggins, Natasha Reid, Paul Harnett, and Sharon Dawe. 2017. "Parenting Interventions for Incarcerated Parents to Improve Parenting Knowledge and Skills, Parent Well-Being, and Quality of the Parent-Child Relationship: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Journal of Experimental Criminology, published online June 1, 2017. Corrections Parenting Interventions for Incarcerated Parents

Marshall, Kushani, Linda Gowing, Robert Ali, and Bernard Le Foll. 2014. "Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis Dependence." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12:CD008940.

Nielsen, Suzanne, Linda Gowing, Pamela Sabioni, and Bernard Le Foll. 2019. "Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis Dependence." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1:CD008940. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008940.pub3

Drug & Substance Abuse Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis Dependence
Mazerolle, Lorraine, Elizabeth Eggins, Adrian Cherney, Lorelei Hine, Angela Higginson, and Emma Belton. 2020. "Police Programmes That Seek to Increase Community Connectedness for Reducing Violent Extremism Behaviour, Attitudes, and Beliefs." Campbell Systematic Review 16(3). Crime Prevention Police Programs That Seek to Increase Community Connectedness for Reducing Violent Extremism Behaviour, Attitudes and Beliefs
Lundahl, Brad W., Janelle Nimer, and Bruce Parsons. 2006. "Preventing Child Abuse: A Meta-Analysis of Parent Training Programs." Research on Social Work Practice 16:251-62. Victims & Victimization Parent Training Programs to Prevent Child Abuse
Lawrence, Peter J., Sally M. Rooke, and Cathy Creswell. 2019. "Review: Prevention of Anxiety Among At-Risk Children and Adolescents-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Child and Adolescent Mental Health 22(3):118-30. Juvenile Justice Programs to Prevent Anxiety Among At-Risk Children and Adolescents
Norberg, Melissa M., Sarah Kezelman, and Nicholas Lim-Howe. 2013. "Primary Prevention of Cannabis Use: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials." PLoS ONE 8(1):e53187. Drug & Substance Abuse Primary Prevention of Cannabis Use

Mazerolle, Lorraine, Sarah Bennett, Jacqueline Davis, Elise Sargeant, and Matthew Manning. 2013. "Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy: A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence." Journal of Experimental Criminology 9:245-74.

Mazerolle, Lorraine, Sarah Bennett, Jacqueline Davis, Elise Sargeant, and Matthew Manning. 2012. "Legitimacy in Policing." Campbell Systematic Reviews.

Law Enforcement Procedural Justice and Police Legitimacy
Dennis Jane A., Omer Khan, Michael Ferriter, Nick Huband, Melanie J. Powney, and Conor Duggan. 2012. "Psychological Interventions for Adults Who Have Sexually Offended or Are at Risk of Offending." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 12:CD007507. Corrections Psychological Interventions for Adults Who Have Sexually Offended or Are At Risk of Offending
Hunt, Glenn E., Nandi Siegfried, Kristen Morley, Thiagarajan Sitharthan, and Michelle Cleary. 2013. "Psychosocial Interventions for People With Both Severe Mental Illness and Substance Misuse." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 10:CD001088. Drug & Substance Abuse Psychosocial Interventions for People With Both Severe Mental Illness and Substance Misuse
Hennessy, Emily A., Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Andrew J. Finch, Nila A. Sathe, and Shannon A. Kugley. 2018. "Recovery Schools for Improving Behavioral and Academic Outcomes Among Students in Recovery From Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Reviews 9. Juvenile Justice Recovery Schools for Improving Behavioral and Academic Outcomes Among Students in Recovery From Substance Use Disorders
Harwood, Anna, Michal Lavidor, and Yuri Rassovsky. 2017. "Reducing Aggression With Martial Arts: A Meta-Analysis of Child and Youth Studies." Aggression and Violent Behavior. Juvenile Justice Reducing Aggression With Martial Arts
Hodgkinson, John, Sally Marshall, Geoff Berry, Mark Newman, Peter Reynolds, Elizabeth Burton, Kelly Dickson, and James Anderson. 2009. Reducing Gang Related Crime: A Systematic Review of "Comprehensive" Interventions. London, England: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education. Juvenile Justice Comprehensive Gang Reduction Programs
Flores, Stephen A., and Mark G. Hartlaub. 1998. "Reducing Rape-Myth Acceptance in Male College Students: A Meta-Analysis of Intervention Studies." Journal of College Student Development 39(5):438-48. Victims & Victimization Reducing Rape-Myth Acceptance in Male College Students
Farre, Magi Anna Mas, Marta Torrens, Victor Moreno, and Jordi Cam. 2002. "Retention Rate and Illicit Opioid Use During Methadone Maintenance Interventions: A Meta-Analysis." Drug and Alcohol Dependence 65:283-90. Drug & Substance Abuse Methadone Maintenance
Onrust, Simone, Roy Otten, Jeroen Lammers, Filip Smit. 2016. "School-Based Programmes to Reduce and Prevent Substance Use in Different Age Groups: What Works for Whom? Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis." Clinical Psychology Review 44:45-59. Drug & Substance Abuse School-Based Programs to Reduce and Prevent Substance Use
Short, Nicole, Danielle M. Morabito, and Amanda K. Gilmore. 2020. "Secondary Prevention for Posttraumatic Stress and Related Symptoms Among Women Who Have Experienced a Recent Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Depression and Anxiety 37:1047-59. Victims & Victimization Secondary Prevention for Posttraumatic Stress and Related Symptoms Among Women Who Have Experienced a Recent Sexual Assault
Bawor, Monica, Brittany B. Dennis, Anuja Bhalerao, Carolyn Plater, Andrew Worster, Michael Varenbut, Jeff Daiter, David C. Marsh, Dipika Desai, Meir Steiner, Rebecca Anglin, Guillaume Pare, Lehana Thabane, and Zainab Samaan. 2015. "Sex Differences in Outcomes of Methadone Maintenance Treatment for Opioid Use Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." CMAJ OPEN 3(3):E344-51. Drug & Substance Abuse Methadone Maintenance
Tripodi, Stephen J., and Kimberly Bender. 2011. "Substance Abuse Treatment for Juvenile Offenders: A Review of Quasi-Experimental and Experimental Research." Journal of Criminal Justice 39:246-52. Drug & Substance Abuse Substance Abuse Treatment for Juvenile Offenders
Dietrichson, Jens, Trine Filges, Rasmus H. Klokker, Bjørn C. A. Viinholt, Martin Bøg, and Ulla H. Jensen. 2020. "Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With, or at Risk of, Academic Difficulties in Grades 7-12: A Systematic Review." Campbell Systematic Review 16:e1081. Juvenile Justice Targeted School-Based Interventions for Improving Reading and Mathematics for Students With, or At Risk of, Academic Difficulties
Eggers del Campo, Isabel, and Janina Isabel Steinert. 2020. "The Effect of Female Economic Empowerment Interventions on the Risk of Intimate Partner Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, published online first. Victims & Victimization Female Economic Empowerment Interventions
Bilukha, Oleg, Robert A. Hahn, Alex Crosby, Mindy T. Fullilove, Akiva Liberman, Eve Moscicki, Susan Snyder, Farris Tuma, Phaedra Corso, Amanda Schofield, Peter A. Briss. 2005. "The Effectiveness of Early Childhood Home Visitation in Preventing Violence: A Systematic Review." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 28(2S1):11-39. Juvenile Justice Home Visiting Programs
Van Stam, M.A.; W.A. Van der Schuur; S. Tserkezis; E.S. Van Vugt; J.J. Asscher; John Clark Gibbs; and G.J.J.M. Stams. 2014. "The Effectiveness of EQUIP on Sociomoral Development and Recidivism Reduction: A Meta-Analytic Study." Children and Youth Services Review 38:44-51. Juvenile Justice Equipping Youth to Help One Another (EQUIP) Program
Dijkstra, Sharon, Hanneke E. Creemers, Jessica J. Asscher, Maja Dekovi, and Geert Jan J.M. Stams. 2016. "The Effectiveness of Family Group Conferencing in Youth Care: A Meta-Analysis." Child Abuse & Neglect 62:100-110. Victims & Victimization Family Group Conferencing
Cairncross, Molly, and Carlin J. Miller. 2020. "The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Therapies for ADHD: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Attention Disorders 24(5):627-43. Juvenile Justice Mindfulness-Based Therapies for ADHD
Cordier, Reinie, Donna Chung, Sarah Wilkes-Gillan, and Renee Speyer. 2019. "The Effectiveness of Protection Orders in Reducing Recidivism in Domestic Violence: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis." Trauma, Violence, and Abuse, published online first. Courts Protection Orders to Reduce Recidivism in Domestic Violence
Bitney, K., Elizabeth Drake, J. Grice, M. Hirsch, M. and S. Lee. 2017. The Effectiveness of Reentry Programs for Incarcerated Persons: Findings for the Washington Statewide Reentry Council (Document Number 17-05-1901). Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Corrections Reentry Programs
Dowden, Craig, Daniel Antonowicz, and Don A. Andrews. 2003. "The Effectiveness of Relapse Prevention With Offenders: A Meta-Analysis." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 47:516-28. Corrections Relapse Prevention for Offenders
Petrosino, Carolyn, Kyung-Shick Choi, Sinyong Choi, Sinchul Back, and Seong-Min Park. 2021. "The Effects of Emotional Literacy Programs on Inmates' Empathy, Mindfulness, and Self-Regulation: A Random-Effect Meta-Analysis." Prison Journal, published online first. Corrections Emotional Literacy Programs for Inmates
Rapp, Richard C., Wim Van Den Noortgate, Eric Broekaert, and Wouter Vanderplasschen. 2014. "The Efficacy of Case Management With Persons Who Have Substance Abuse Problems: A Three-Level Meta-Analysis of Outcomes." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 82:605-18.

 

Hesse, M., Wouter Vanderplasschen, Richard C. Rapp, E. Broekaert, and M. Fridell. 2007. "Case Management for Persons With Substance Use Disorders." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 4: CD006265. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006265.pub3.(updated in 2014 meta above).

Vanderplasschen, Wouter, Richard C. Rapp, Jessica De Maeyer, and Wim Van Den. Noortgate. 2019. "A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Case Management for Substance Use Disorders: A Recovery Perspective." Frontiers in Psychiatry 10(186):1-18.

Drug & Substance Abuse Case Management With Persons Who Have Substance Abuse Problems
Cunha, Lindsay Marie. 2008. The Efficacy of Therapeutic Interventions for Adolescent Maltreatment Victims: A Meta-Analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation. Fresno, Calif.: California School of Professional Psychology. Victims & Victimization Therapeutic Interventions for Adolescent Maltreatment Victims
Garner, Joel H., Christopher D. Maxwell, and Jina Lee. 2021. "The Specific Deterrent Effects of Criminal Sanctions for Intimate-Partner Violence: A Meta-Analysis." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 111(1):227-74. Courts Criminal Sanctions for Intimate Partner Violence
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De Swart, J. J. W., H. Van den Broek, G. J. J. M. Stams, J. J. Asscher, P. H. Van der Laan, G. A. Holsbrink-Engels, and G. H. P. Van der Helm. 2012. "The Effectiveness o f Institutional Youth Care Over the Past Three Decades: A Meta-Analysis." Children and Youth Services Review 34(9):1818-24. Juvenile Justice Institutional Youth Care
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Dowden, Craig and Don A. Andrews. 2004. "The Importance of Staff Practice in Delivering Effective Correctional Treatment: A Meta-Analytic Review of Core Correctional Practice." International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48:203-214. Corrections Staff Practice in Delivering Effective Correctional Treatment
Driskell, James E. 2012. "Effectiveness of Deception Detection Training: A Meta-Analysis." Psychology, Crime & Law 18:713-31. Law Enforcement Deception Detection Training
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Dunn, Chris, Lisa Deroo, and Frederick P. Rivara. 2001. "The Use of Brief Interventions Adapted from Motivational Interviewing Across Behavioral Domains: A Systematic Review." Addiction 96(12):1725-42. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing
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Eby, Lillian T., Tammy D. Allen, Sarah C. Evans, Thomas Ng, and David L. DuBois. 2008. "Does Mentoring Matter? A Multi-Disciplinary Meta-Analysis Comparing Mentored and Non-Mentored Individuals." Journal of Vocational Behavior 72:254-67. Juvenile Justice Mentoring
Erke, Alena. 2009. "Red Light for Red-Light Cameras?: A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Red-Light Cameras on Crashes." Accident Analysis & Prevention 41(5):897-905. Law Enforcement Red Light Cameras
Farahmand, Farahnaz K., Kathryn E. Grant, Antonio J. Polo, and Sophia N. Duffy. 2011. "School‐Based Mental Health and Behavioral Programs for Low‐Income, Urban Youth: A Systematic and Meta‐Analytic Review." Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 18(4):372-90. Juvenile Justice School-Based Mental Health and Behavioral Programs for Low-Income Urban Youth
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Ferguson, Christopher John. 2007. "The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: A Meta-Analytic Review of Positive and Negative Effects of Violent Video Games." Psychiatric Quarterly 78(4):309-16. Juvenile Justice Effects of Violent Video Games
Fisak Jr., Brian J., Dan Richard, and Angela Mann. 2011. "The Prevention of Child and Adolescent Anxiety: A Meta-Analytic Review." Prevention Science 12(3):255-68. Juvenile Justice Prevention of Child and Adolescent Anxiety
Fisher, Herrick, Frances Gardner, and Paul Montgomery. 2008. "Cognitive‐Behavioural Interventions for Preventing Youth Gang Involvement for Children and Young People (7‐16)." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2008:7. Juvenile Justice Cognitive Behavioral Interventions to Prevent Gang Involvement
Fossum, Sturla, Bjørn Helge Handegård, Frode Adolfsen, Svein Arild Vis, and Rolf Wynn. 2016. "A Meta-Analysis of Long-Term Outpatient Treatment Effects for Children and Adolescents with Conduct Problems." Journal of Child and Family Studies 25:15-29. Juvenile Justice Long-Term Outpatient Treatment for Children and Adolescents with Conduct Problems
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Gendreau, Paul, Shelley J. Listwan, Joseph B. Kuhns, and M. Lyn Exum. 2014. "Making Prisoners Accountable: Are Contingency Management Programs the Answer?" Criminal Justice and Behavior 41(9):1079-1102. Drug & Substance Abuse Contingency Management Programs for Prisoners
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Goss, Cynthia W., Lisa D. Van Bramer, Jeffrey A. Gliner, Todd R. Porter, Ian G. Roberts, and Carolyn DiGuiseppi. 2008. "Increased Police Patrols for Preventing Alcohol-Impaired Driving." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005242. Law Enforcement Police Patrols for Preventing Alcohol-Impaired Driving
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Guterman, Neil B. 1999. "Enrollment Strategies in Early Home Visitation to Prevent Physical Child Abuse and Neglect and the "Universal Versus Targeted" Debate: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based and Screening-Based Programs." Child Abuse & Neglect 23:863-90. Victims & Victimization Enrollment Strategies in Early Home Visitation to Prevent Physical Child Abuse and Neglect
Harnett, Paul H., and Sharon Dawe. 2012. "The Contribution of Mindfulness‐Based Therapies for Children and Families and Proposed Conceptual Integration." Child and Adolescent Mental Health 17(4):195-208. Juvenile Justice Mindfulness-Based Therapies for Children and Families
Hartung, Daniel M., Dennis McCarty, Rongwei Fu, Katharina Wiest, Mady Chalk, and David R. Gastfriend. 2014. "Extended-Release Naltrexone for Alcohol and Opioid Dependence: A Meta-Analysis of Healthcare Utilization Studies." Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 47:113-121. Drug & Substance Abuse Extended-Release Naltrexone for Alcohol and Opioid Dependence
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Hetzel-Riggin, Melanie D., Amy M. Brausch, and Brad S. Montgomery. 2007. "A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Therapy Modality Outcomes for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: An Exploratory Study." Child Abuse & Neglect 31(2):125-41. Victims & Victimization Therapy Modalities for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents
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Holloway, Katy R., Trevor H. Bennett, and David P. Farrington. 2006. "The Effectiveness of Drug Treatment Programs in Reducing Criminal Behavior." Psicothema 18:620-629. Corrections Drug Treatment Programs
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Jensen, Chad D., Christopher C. Cushing, Brandon S. Aylward, James T. Craig, Danielle M. Sorell, and Ric G. Steele. 2011. "Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Behavior Change: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 79(4):433. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use
Jiménez-Barbero, José Antonio, José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández, Laura Llor-Zaragoza, María Pérez-García, and Bartolomé Llor-Esteban. 2016. "Effectiveness of Anti-Bullying School Programs: A Meta-Analysis." Children and Youth Services Review 61:165-75. Juvenile Justice Anti-Bullying School Programs
Jolliffe, Darrick, and David P. Farrington. 2007. A Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Impact of Mentoring on Re-Offending: A Summary. London, England: Home Office. Juvenile Justice Mentoring
Kim, Johnny S. 2008. "Examining the Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Meta-Analysis." Research on Social Work Practice 18:107-116. Juvenile Justice Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
Knerr, Wendy, Frances Gardner, and Lucie Cluver. 2013. "Improving Positive Parenting Skills and Reducing Harsh and Abusive Parenting in Low-and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review." Prevention Science 14(4):352-63. Juvenile Justice Improving Positive Parenting Skills (in Low- and Middle-Income Countries)
Koper, Christopher S., Evan Mayo-Wilson, and John Smith. 2012. "Police Strategies to Reduce Illegal Possession and Carrying of Firearms: Effects." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012:11. Law Enforcement Police Strategies to Reduce Illegal Possession and Carrying of Firearms
Ksobiech, Kate. 2003. "A Meta-Analysis of Needle Sharing, Lending, and Borrowing Behaviors of Needle Exchange Program Attenders." AIDS Education and Prevention 15(3):257-68. Drug & Substance Abuse Needle Exchange Programs
Landenberger, Nana A., and Mark W. Lipsey. 2005. "The Positive Effects of Cognitive-Behavioral Programs for Offenders: A Meta-Analysis of Factors Associated with Effective Treatment." Journal of Experimental Criminology 1:451-76. Corrections Cognitive-Behavioral Programs for Offenders
Långström, Niklas, Pia Enebrink, Eva-Marie Laurén, Jonas Lindblom, Sophie Werkö, and R. Karl Hanson. 2013. "Preventing Sexual Abusers of Children from Reoffending: A Systematic Review of Medical and Psychological Interventions." BMJ 347:f4630. Corrections Medical and Psychological Intervention for Sexual Abusers of Children
Latimer, Jeff, Craig Dowden, and Danielle Muise. 2005. "The Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis." The Prison Journal 85(2):127-44. Victims & Victimization Restorative Justice Practices
Leonard, Liam, and Paula Kenny. 2010. "Measuring the Effectiveness of Restorative Justice Practices in the Republic of Ireland Through a Meta-Analysis of Functionalist Exchange." The Prison Journal 91(1):57-80. Victims & Victimization Restorative Justice Practices in Republic of Ireland
Lipsey, Mark W. 2009. "The Primary Factors that Characterize Effective Interventions with Juvenile Offenders: A Meta-Analytic Overview." Victims and Offenders 4:124-47. Juvenile Justice Interventions with Juvenile Offenders
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Lowenkamp, Christopher T., Alexander M. Holsinger, and Edward J. Latessa. 2005. "Are Drug Courts Effective: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Communication Corrections:5-11. Courts Drug Courts
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Lussier, Jennifer Plebani, Sarah H. Heil, Joan A. Mongeon, Gary J. Badger, and Stephen T. Higgins. 2006. "A Meta‐Analysis of Voucher‐Based Reinforcement Therapy for Substance Use Disorders." Addiction 101(2):192-203. Drug & Substance Abuse Voucher-Based Reinforcement Therapy for Substance Use
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Magill, Molly, and Lara A. Ray. 2009. "Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment With Adult Alcohol and Illicit Drug Users: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials." Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs:516-527. Drug & Substance Abuse Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment with Adult Alcohol and Illicit Drug Users
Magill, Molly, Jacques Gaume, Timothy R. Apodaca, Justin Walthers, Nadine R. Mastroleo, Brian Borsari, and Richard Longabaugh. 2014. "The Technical Hypothesis of Motivational Interviewing: A Meta-Analysis of MI’s Key Causal Model." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 82(6):973. Drug & Substance Abuse Motivational Interviewing
Mason, Michael, Bolanle Ola, Nikola Zaharakis, and Jing Zhang. 2015. "Text Messaging Interventions for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Use: a Meta-Analysis." Prevention Science 16:181-88. Juvenile Justice Text Messaging Interventions for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Use
Matthew, Marissa E. 2012. Preventative Measures Related to Youth Gang Involvement: A Meta-Analysis. Masters' Thesis. Los Angeles, CA: California State University, Northridge. Juvenile Justice Preventative Measures Related to Youth Gang Involvement
McGowan, Angela, Robert Hahn, Akiva Liberman, Alex Crosby, Mindy Fullilove, Robert Johnson, Eve Moscicki, et al. 2007. "Effects on Violence of Laws and Policies Facilitating the Transfer of Juveniles from the Juvenile Justice System to the Adult Justice System." American Journal of Preventative Medicine 32(4S):S7-S28. Juvenile Justice Violence Laws and Policies Facilitating Transfer of Juveniles to Adult Justice System
McPhail, Ian V., Chantal A. Hermann, and Kevin L. Nunes. 2013. "Emotional Congruence with Children and Sexual Offending Against Children: A Meta-Analytic Review." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 81:737-749. Juvenile Justice Emotional Congruence with Children and Sexual Offending Against Children
Meissner, Christian, Allison Redlich, Sujeeta Bhatt, and Susan Brandon. 2012. "Interview and Interrogation Methods and their Effects on Investigative Outcomes." Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012:8. Law Enforcement Interview and Interrogation Methods
Memon, Amina, Christian A. Meissner, and Joanne Fraser. 2010. "The Cognitive Interview: A Meta-Analytic Review and Study Space Analysis of the Past 25 Years." Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 16(4):340. Law Enforcement Cognitive Interviews
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Minozzi, Silvia, Laura Amato, Cristina Bellisario, Marica Ferri, and Marina Davoli. 2013. "Maintenance Agonist Treatments for Opiate-Dependent Pregnant Women." Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD006318. Drug & Substance Abuse Maintenance Agonist Treatments for Opiate-Dependent Pregnant Women
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Why Meta-Analyses Are Screened Out

A meta-analysis is screened out if it does not meet all of the criteria described below.

  1. Intervention: The meta-analysis must include at least two program evaluations of the practice of interest.
  2. Aggregation: The meta-analysis must report an aggregate effect size. That is, the meta-analysis must aggregate or average the effects of at least two studies into a single estimate of the effectiveness of the treatment.
  3. Primary aim: The intervention that is the subject of the meta-analysis must focus on at least one of the following. The program or practice must:
    • Aim to prevent or reduce crime or delinquency, overt problem behaviors (such as aggression or gang involvement), or important risk factors for crime or delinquency (such as school failure);
    • Aim to prevent, intervene, or respond to victimization;
    • Aim to improve justice systems or processes; and/or
    • Target an offender population or an at-risk population (that is, individuals who have the potential to become involved in the justice system).
  4. Literature search: The meta-analysis must be based on a comprehensive and systematic search of the literature. To meet this criterion at least minimally, the search must include both of the following components:
    • At least two sources for identifying potentially eligible research must be used. Sources include, for example, different electronic bibliographies, Google type internet searches, hand searches of journals, contacting relevant researchers in the field, and reviewing the references in pertinent studies and prior reviews.
    • There is some indication that unpublished or “grey” literature was sought during the search, whether or not any unpublished research reports eventually met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Unpublished and grey literature are defined here as literature that is not controlled by commercial publishers, including for example, conference presentations, government and non-governmental agency technical reports, and theses/dissertations. Meta-analyses that explicitly state that only published or peer-reviewed research was included are ineligible. Meta-analyses that explicitly or actively excluded unpublished or non-peer-reviewed research are ineligible.
  5. Primary outcomes: The meta-analysis must report results on at least one eligible outcome, defined by CrimeSolutions to include:
    • Crime, delinquency, or overt problem behaviors (including aggression, gang involvement, or substance use), which may be presented as individual behaviors, community-level behaviors, crime rates, etc.;
    • Victimization;
    • Justice system practices or policies; or,
    • Risk factors for crime and delinquency, including school failure, psychological problems or mental illness, etc.

      Eligible outcomes must fall completely within one of the single construct categories listed below and cannot be combinations of constructs across more than one category. That is, constructs that are combinations of education and mental health outcomes would not be eligible unless the education and mental health outcomes were also reported separately.
  6. Control groups: The studies included in the meta-analysis must have appropriate control groups. Specifically, one of the following two conditions must be met:
    • An appropriate counterfactual condition is required for all included studies in a meta-analysis, or
    • In meta-analyses that include studies without control groups, results for controlled studies are reported separately from those of uncontrolled studies.
  7. Reporting of results: The meta-analysis must report a common quantitative index of results that represents the magnitude of the treatment effect (i.e., effect sizes) across included studies.
  8. Combining relationships: If the meta-analysis reports an average mean effect size calculation (for all studies or for subgroups of studies), only effect sizes in the same metric and measuring the same type of relationship are averaged together. This criterion has to do with the kinds of relationships and effect sizes that are combined rather than the types of programs that are combined. A meta-analysis that includes a diverse group of programs would not necessarily be problematic here. However, a meta-analysis that combined standardized mean difference effect sizes for treatment versus control comparisons with pretest-posttest change effect sizes would be ineligible unless the different effect size means were reported separately.
  9. Publication date: At least 50% of the studies included in the meta-analysis must be published or available on or after 1980.
  10. Age of samples: All of the studies included in the meta-analysis must involve offender participants that are either all juvenile or all adult. If the meta-analysis includes studies that involve both juveniles and adults, mean effect sizes must be reported separately for the juvenile and adult studies. Meta-analyses that include studies that themselves combine juveniles and adults in the same programs without providing any options for splitting the juvenile and adult samples would not be eligible. The age criterion does not apply for: (1) meta-analyses of practices or procedures that focus on areas, hot spots, surveillance, and the like, which do not typically involve identifiable offenders; or for (2) victim interventions.

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Date Created: August 10, 2020